Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences + 3 Related Tips for Online Learning

Many learning scenarios follow a typical pattern: teacher gives information, learner gets information, teacher tests information, repeat. In fact, the term “pedagogy,” commonly known as teaching techniques and principles, originates from the Greek paid (child) and agogus (leader of.) [1]

 

However, many teachers today also know that this dispensary style of teaching and learning doesn’t work for everyone, and many classrooms (traditional or nontraditional) offer opportunities for students to learn actively and apply new material and skills rather than passively receiving information. Many of those teachers and learners have found themselves at home on LRNGO.

 

Yet online educators must keep in mind that, above all else, teaching is a profession dealing with people: that is, individuals who who have different strengths and challenges. And as our society becomes more inclusive of various manifestations of diversity, teachers must honor and prepare for learning diversity online as well. Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of Education at Harvard University, developed a theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. This theory still serves as a touchstone today for any teacher wanting to embrace learning diversity, and any learner seeking autonomy in the learning process.

 

[1] International Women Online Journal of Distance Education https://www.wojde.org/FileUpload/bs295854/File/04_22.pdf

 

Multiple Intelligences

 

The theory outlines eight types of “smart”:

  • Linguistic intelligence (“word smart”)
  • Logical-mathematical intelligence (“number/reasoning smart”)
  • Spatial intelligence (“picture smart”)
  • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (“body smart”)
  • Musical intelligence (“music smart”)
  • Interpersonal intelligence (“people smart”)
  • Intrapersonal intelligence (“self smart”)
  • Naturalist intelligence (“nature smart”)

 

This theory refutes the emphasis placed on being “word smart” and “number smart” in the classroom[2], encourages a balance in the presentation and processing of new information, and shifts how gains in knowledge or proficiency are represented. Below are three ways LRNGO instructors can tap into the multiple intelligences of their learners, and hopefully improve learning outcomes and teaching experiences for all!

 

  1. Take an Inventory. Get to know your learner before the teaching starts. Often good instructors will administer diagnostic assessments to get a baseline idea of their learner’s prior knowledge and skills. Instructors can also find several inventories for students to complete, which provide insight in to the learner’s unique strengths and challenges. You may like this one from Edutopia.
  1. Try Multiple Routes. Once you have a better sense of your student as whole, use this information to strengthen your teaching. For example, if you found that you are working with a visual/spatial learner, try to replace words with pictures as much as possible. If you are working with a naturalist, try to create connections between your topic and the natural world. A kinesthetic learner may need to make or touch things in order to learn best, so you can think creatively about how to make that happen in a virtual learning space. Try to also consider your own intelligence – this may influence how you teach.
  1. Expect Different Outcomes. Allow your students to show what they know in different ways. Interpersonal learners may want to talk their way through the process with a partner, but intrapersonal learners may want to practice on their own and show you their progress later. If you are teaching multiple students on the same topic, consider creating a menu of choices that your students can choose from when it comes time for a final assessment, performance, or project. This site offers a variety of options.

 

There are millions of paths to meet the needs of diverse learners, but whatever you do, try to shake up your lesson presentation and offer variety in student response along the way, capitalizing on students’ existing strengths and challenging them to learn in new ways!

 

[2] American Institute for Learning and Human Development https://www.institute4learning.com/multiple_intelligences.php

 

Author Hannah Rosenthal is a New York University graduate with a degree in Childhood & Special Education and a decade of experience in inclusive education. She has served as a special education learning specialist, classroom teacher & co-teacher, and literacy director. Hannah is now the co-founder of Teaching2gether, an inclusive educational consulting group collaborating with educators and developers to reach and teach the broadest audience.

Starting Your Online Tutoring Business

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Step 1: Look into all of your options before starting your own online tutoring business

There are few things to consider before making the big decision, and I’ll go through them one at a time.

1. Going at it on your own is not the only option available. TeachersToGo.com; Eduboard.com; Tutor.com; tutorvista.com; there are many established online tutoring companies that allow you to work for them. Starting your own online tutoring business will require marketing, choosing your own payment system, and more. However, I hasten to add that none of these steps are insurmountable obstacles; in fact, as I hope to demonstrate, none of the steps are even particularly difficult. It is also important to keep in mind that tutoring companies and websites like the ones mentioned all charge a sizeable comission (generally from 20-60%). This means that you will make less money working as a tutor for one of these companies than if you successfully create your own thriving online tutoring business. To get more information on this subject, here are two superb websites to check out:

http://blog.tutorhub.com/2013/07/17/online-tutoring-a-do-it-yourself-guide-for-tutors/ – a good site to get both general information about tutoring, as well as recommendations for specific computer programs to use during your actual tutoring sessions.

https://education.skype.com/resources/577-21-things-you-absolutely-need-to-know-before-you-hire-an-online-tutor – this site provides a look at online tutoring from the customer’s perspective, including a detailed examination of the pros and cons of hiring a tutor from one of these tutoring sites.

2.  It is also important to mention that there are a number of websites that are not quite tutoring websites, but still sites that you might be interested in. It is worth exploring the web to find the right fit for you. Here are two of these more esoteric options:

www.Fiverr.com – on Fiverr you create a “gig” and then post it on the site. For example, your “gig” could be an offer to help with math homework. If someone is interested in your services, they will contact you via the website. Upon successful completion of the “gig” for a client, you will be rewarded with $5 for your services; hence the name of the site. (This may be an issue when it comes to reasonable rates, but might be an ok place to practice.)

www.Fittytown.com – similar to Fiverr but different in that each “gig” must cost exactly $50. This obviously means that the tasks that you are offering to complete must be more valuable.

3.  One concern you might have is about the concept of online tutoring itself, the idea that online tutoring is simply not as effective as face-to-face. It is true that online tutoring has a negative side. For example, it limits the ability to observe what are called paralinguistic cues – ie: body movements, facial expressions, and other forms of “physical speaking” that communicate information nonverbally. It is important to remember, however, that such difficulties are not insurmountable; mainly all that is required is getting comfortable with having conversations via video. It is also important not to overlook the huge benefits. For example, because tutoring online doesn’t require any of parties involved to travel, tutoring online is a huge timesaver. This means that new possibilities begin to emerge. Consider face to face tutoring for a moment: when both the teacher and the student have to spend time driving to a specific physical location, it doesn’t make sense to have a ten minute tutoring session because of the time lost in transit. In the online tutoring format, however, suddenly it becomes feasible to have these shorter, daily tutoring sessions.

Step 2: Get the Necessary Hardware

You will need a computer with a decent internet connection, a microphone, and a webcam. Generally speaking most computers today come packaged with both a microphone and a webcam. However, you might want to replace both the packaged microphone and the webcam if they don’t perform well.

If you are just starting out in online tutoring and need to purchase a computer, there are many affordable options to choose from, from refurbished systems to new desktops that are expressly built with the consumer on a budget in mind. The following is by no means a comprehensive list of sites, but simply a few of the many places to check out. It probably doesn’t need to be said, but make sure that, before you purchase anything, the system is capable of smoothly running video chatting applications. Just like the microphone and webcam, keep in mind that you now need a much higher level of performance since you will be using it for your business.

http://www.pcworld.com/product/collection/1646/top-10-value-desktop-pcs.html – A great website following the familiar “Top 10” schema.

http://abc13.com/archive/8781766/ and http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2374269,00.asp – These pair of articles will begin to give you a basic understanding of the value of refurbished computers

http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2371334,00.asp – This is a good article to check out if you’re interested in specifically purchasing a laptop (rather than a desktop) on a budget.

Step 3: Choose a video communication service and accompanying software

Determining a video chatting platform that you will use to communicate with your students is a crucial step. If you are just starting out as an online tutor, I would recommend either Skype or Google Hangouts. Both are free, reliable, and easy to set up. Google Hangouts is especially notable because it allows easy integration with a variety of third party applications. Click on this link and follow the instructions to download Skype: http://www.skype.com/en/download-skype/skype-for-computer/. Click on this link to and follow the instructions to download Google Hangouts https://www.google.com/+/learnmore/hangouts/.

There are also numerous other video conferencing options to consider. Here are a few of the many other options available.

Vsee (free)- this is a good alternative to skype or google hangouts. Users typically praise its reliability and wealth of collaborative features, which include application sharing, file sharing, and desktop sharing.

Facetime (free)- Although it only works between Apple products, Facetime is known for providing one of the best user experiences: it is easy to set up and the call quality is generally excellent. However, it lacks some of the more collaborative features of some of the other widely known services.

Oovoo (free) – At one point endorsed by the House of Representatives, this web conferencing software is easy to use and easy to set up. It is also equipped with a robust sharing feature allowing you to share your desktop screen with another.

Webex ($24 per month) – a full-fledged web conferencing solution offering features including desktop sharing and an interactive whiteboard.

In addition to these video chatting platforms, there are also a few other pieces of accompanying software you might need. From online whiteboards to file sharing options, here are a few possibilities:

Google docs (Free)- allows for multiple people to edit the same document, at the same time, and see the results in real-time.

IDroo for skype- An interactive and collaborative whiteboard that works with skype.

Scribblar- similar to IDroo. A collaborative whiteboard that supports text chat.

 

To find more information on helpful software options, check out the following sites:

4Teachers.org: A great source that helps teachers find ways to integrate technology into classrooms.

http://blog.socrato.com/top-5-free-online-tutoring-tools/: Provides reviews of some of the best online tutoring tools.

http://www.teachthought.com/featured/25-tutoring-tools-for-the-21st-century/: Gives a dizzying number of various online products to consider.

           

As a final note on the subject, it is worth spending time learning as much as you can about your video communication service of choice. You will most likely have to guide your clients through the process of setting it up on their computers as well. In fact, if you want to optimize your chances of getting the most students possible, offer two or more of the most popular choices. (Many students tend to stick only to the ones they know, and will insist on not learning a new service or platform, but rather having you conform to theirs.)

Step 4: Get a PayPal Account

PayPal is by far the most convenient pay option available for online tutors. All that a client needs to make a payment is your email address. In order to make a payment, the client then goes to the PayPal website, clicks the “send” button on the top of the page, and then inputs the requisite information. Both you and they will receive an email confirmation recording the transaction. And that’s it.

Here are a few things to take note of in regards to payment:

  1. You will want to make sure to get paid before the actual tutoring session. It will likely be difficult to track down clients after the sessions are completed.
  2. You will want to create a “business” PayPal account as opposed to a “personal” PayPal account.
  3. Your earnings will be taxable.

Unfortunately, believe it or not, not every country accepts PayPal. For those that don’t, here are a few alternatives:

Alipay: One of China’s leading online payment exchange solutions. Considering its reputation as the PayPal of the east, this is the first one to try if PayPal is not available in your country.

Skrill: Formally known as Moneybookers, this service has completely rebranded itself and is now known to be both reliable and efficient. It is also available in Pakistan, a country covered by neither Paypal nor Alipay.

Amazon Webpay: Operates almost exactly like PayPal. Easy to use, and simple to set up.

Step 5: Market Yourself

Marketing yourself can take a variety of forms. Here are a few options, in no particular order:

  1. Check out Google AdWords. For a fee, you can advertise directly on Google. Check out http://www.google.com for more information. This, of course, requires money up front, and is also time consuming to learn. You also really have to be careful about setting the limits and watching your conversion rate, or you’ll spend way too much on leads that may not come through.
  2. Create a Facebook Presence- Create a Facebook profile at https://www.facebook.com/ and use it as an advertising platform to get the word out. Check out the profiles of fellow tutors to get an idea of what are acceptable and unacceptable forms of advertising in the Facebook community. For more information on using Facebook for business, https://econsultancy.com/blog/6249-ten-ways-to-advertise-your-business-on-facebook#i.1f9bbip1djzekf is a good place to start.
  3. Advertise on sites like Craigslist or Gumtree- at www.craigslist.org you can create adds advertising your tutoring service. For a detailed description of how to post ads on Craigslist, check out sites like http://www.wikihow.com/Sell-Items-on-Craigslist.
  4. Um, yeah…create a profile on Lrngo.com. Unlike other tutoring websites which take a fee for their marketing services, Lrngo is simply a medium through which thousands of people worldwide search to find, pay for and trade lessons with teachers & tutors, teachers and tutors who all keep 100% of their own pay. Go to www.lrngo.com to create a free profile. Because there are no fees, it also makes sense to link to the Lrngo profile from your Facebook, Craigslist and other advertising pages.
  5. Word of Mouth- The oldest form of advertising is one of the best. Very simply, people are more likely to pay attention when they are hearing an actual human speak rather than just reading words on a computer screen.

Don’t forget, at the end of the day, you choose who you are willing to teach. I would advise being very specific about the times you are willing to work and also about the clientele you are willing to work with.

Step 6: Decide how much to charge for a session

Online tutors generally charge between $30 and $80 an hour. As a proficient tutor just starting out in the online medium, it is often recommended to charge between $30 and $45. Of course, there is no hard and fast rule. Determining your price will take a little bit of research on your own part, examining, for example, how competitors are pricing their lessons.

Step 7: Examine the legal side of going into business for yourself

For instance, in the U.S., if you are self-employed with earnings of more than $600, reporting your income by filing a 1099 tax return is required.

Step 8: Talk to other online tutors

This is something that can never be emphasized enough. In order to really become effective at online tutoring, you’re going to want to learn as much as you can about it from talking with people who are respected in the field. While it is similar to face-to-face tutoring, it is obviously a different experience in a lot of ways. Talking to other online tutors and asking about how they made the transition from face-to-face tutoring to virtual tutoring is a great place to start.

Step 9: Getting used to working for yourself

This one can be a little harder than it initially sounds. Most people, having just started working for themselves, will be immensely productive because of the initial adrenaline rush for about two weeks or so. They will then hit a so-called “unproductive slump”; the lack of deadlines and hard and fast appointments can be difficult to manage. Here a few brief tips to cope with the change.

  1. Stick to your schedule- This is a big one. I know that you feel like you can take a longer lunch break now than you used to and that you feel like you can now run errands during the workday. Resist the urge. Don’t procrastinate. Force yourself to meet your deadlines and stay on task.
  2. Have a definite end to your workday- This will not always be possible, but having a clear end of your workday will help you keep your sanity.
  3. Prioritize- Lots to do and no time to do it? Know which tasks on your agenda or most important and don’t let yourself be bogged down minor tasks. Brainstorming on a lesson plan that you need by the afternoon takes precedent over making a craigslist advertisement.

Step 10: The Practice Run

Still feeling a little nervous about the whole experience? I would recommend two things: 1) Try practicing by tutoring someone in your family or someone who is a friend. If you know someone in your family or circle of friends who wants to learn more about a skill or knowledge you have, teach them a lesson for a half hour or hour to start, then ask for feedback. Realize that this will be different than teaching someone you don’t know, but it can be a helpful place to start. 2) Sign up if you haven’t already and use the Free Exchange on LRNGO.com to make a match and practice with people who want to teach and learn from each other. As you probably know already, you can do this in person or online, and both experiences are valuable for learning, sharpening and refining tutoring and teaching skills. Here are two possible ways that LRNGO’s Free Exchange can help you practice.

  • Use Lrngo to make a match and connect with someone who is interested in learning your subject of expertise, and who will teach you a subject that you want to learn in return. Are you interested in learning a little Spanish or figuring out how to solve a Rubik’s cube, or brushing up on your math skills? You can gain valuable teaching experience in exchange for free learning. For example, let’s say you are an English tutor who is interested in learning Spanish. Use the Free Exchange to contact someone who is interested in learning English but knows Spanish. You can then “exchange” languages. In other words, you will learn a skill you want to pick up, but you will also be able to practice teaching someone an expertise and gain valuable feedback and teaching experience.
  • You can also use Lrngo’s Free Exchange as a resource to connect with others who are interested in getting better at online tutoring and arrange a quick meeting. Even though as a premise you are meeting to exchange learning, you can just as easily see that you are also exchanging “teaching.” In other words, while taking turns learning from each other, you can help each other with the goal of becoming better online tutors, exchanging online tutoring tactics, practicing together, and supporting each other.

In essence, use the Free Exchange on LRNGO as a chance to build up experience teaching without the pressure. Then when you’re ready, you can list as a Private Instructor for a fee. As with any skill, I can’t emphasize enough how beneficial practice is to improving your tutoring ability and calming your nerves.

Remember to always ask the student about his or her goals and reasons for learning at the first lesson (or before). A good tutor or teacher will want to stay focused on how he or she can best help the student, and it’s helpful to know about the student’s expectations and why he or she wants to learn the subject. In the end, the result of helping someone learn and improve should be no different on video chat than it is in person.

The Radical Learning Exchange

Houston Language Partners Initiative

A learning exchange seminar at the public library.

I decided to come up for air this week long enough to write another blog.  (Yes, it’s been a while!)  I’m going to approach this topic for now from my perspective when dealing with a select few who, for whatever reason, don’t get the idea of free learning exchange.  The overwhelming majority I’ve encountered so far have been enthusiastic, but on those rare occasions when the idea has been met with disdain or indifference, I always wonder why.  What is it that bothers them?

The idea of learning exchange as it pertains to languages between adults has been around for years (if you’re reading my blog, chances are you’ve already heard the phrase “language exchange” across the internet), and the idea of a time bank barter system for services has been around at least since the early 1800’s.

Yet, most people today don’t think in terms of bartering services (or if they do, they have problems finding others who do), and almost no one thinks in terms of bartering knowledge other than languages (except on LRNGO of course!).  So why is that?

When I originally introduced the idea of a peer to peer language exchange community matchmaking program to a local library recently, the idea was met with “we already have a class for that.” “Really?”, I said, “that’s awesome.”  I soon found out she was referring to Spanish and English classes.

She couldn’t fathom, no matter how much I explained it, that 1. there could be a structure for people to match up and learn from each other 2. practicing one-to-one could bridge the disconnect between learning of the subject matter and the actual use in real world situations and 3. people would voluntarily match up to teach their native language in exchange for learning a second language from another person.

In short, I was unable to convince her of the value of learning exchange or to understand the dynamic of bio-feedback that is different when people learn from each other one-to-one.

“Of course, it doesn’t mean the classroom isn’t valuable,” I said, “in fact for many subjects, a structured curriculum is most highly recommended for a basic foundation.  However in those cases, people also almost always benefit from practice and additional feedback of one-to-one learning.  This is why tutors are so popular.” (Blank stare.)

The same week, I had another person tell me that language exchange sounds like a crazy idea because we would be trying to change people’s behavior, so he would need to see data to show that anyone would do it.  (I started to tell him about the 16 million users who at one time were doing it regularly on LiveMocha and other websites too numerous to mention, but decided to drop the subject when he said he had never heard of eBay.)

Finally, I got a very interesting response from a program coordinator at a large church when we talked to her about the idea of bringing a language exchange matching program for Spanish and English to their split congregation as a fun social and educational bridge.  “No thank you,” she said, “we like things the way they are.”  (It was the second part of that sentence that surprised me.  You can draw your own conclusions.)

So why does the idea seem so heretical to some to create a structure for people to match up and learn from each other?  At first, I thought perhaps it was because the idea that one can learn outside of a classroom (ie: the idea that learning takes place everywhere–insert annoying Alanis Morrissette song here) in some people’s minds competes with traditional learning—but as I poked and prodded the uninitiated nay-sayers, it became evident that was acceptable.  They generally got the idea of personal tutors, mentors and coaches—at least as classroom supplements, if not substitutes.

No, as I drilled down to the root of the issue in the case of the people above, it became evident that they started to feel uncomfortable when we removed both volunteerism and currency from the transaction.  They “get” the volunteering and they “get” paying, but for them, bartering knowledge was just a radical concept.

Daniel Ariely’s book “Predictably Irrational” offers some insight. Ariely argues that we live in two worlds simultaneously: The “Market World” where everything is rooted in the exchange of money, goods, competition and cost/benefit analysis; and the “Social World,” where we do favors for other people, and volunteer for charity and community organizations.

Ariely has a useful example to illustrate what happens when you mix the market world with the social world: A day care center was discontent that parents picked up their children late, so they introduced a fine to solve the problem—but instead of reducing the rate of late pickups, the rate rose higher.

Why? By introducing a fine, the day care center switched from the “Social World” to the “Market World,” and the parents felt it was ok to pick up their children late because they paid for it.  For the people I mentioned above, the concept of trading and exchanging knowledge took their social world and their market world, and turned them upside down.

This actually bugged me for a while.  Not because these people would never become LRNGO users (believe me, we don’t have room for everybody yet so I’m just fine with that), but sub-consciously I felt like I should be able to get everyone in the world to see the value in this.  I had shown them real people (both through our seminars and on LRNGO) who made lifelong friends through this process, people who had learned and achieved their goals, and people who thanked us for providing a no cost educational opportunity–all to no avail.

Then I remembered what else these people had in common.  They had never tried it.  In all of our speed-friending events and seminars we’ve ever given for learning exchange, the only complaint I’ve ever heard (other than parking) was that the event and time to meet people is too short.  After trying it, even those who don’t find the right match at first realize the value and opportunity that await when they do.  (It’s like “dating for the mind.”)

I remember one of our speakers, a multi-linguist who speaks seven languages (all learned through language exchange) passionately telling people if they try this, they won’t look at learning the same.  I heard from a member of the audience two months later who told me she found a language partner that night, and they were still meeting once a week…and I remembered his words, “Don’t talk about it, do it–it’s all around you, find someone and learn!”  The idea of social learning and learning exchange may be radical, but an idea is only valuable if you do it.

I no longer feel the need to convert those who are uninspired to the learning exchange concept, because I know they are inspired by other things.  Things they’ve done, things they know about, and things they’ve tried.  The next time I try to tell someone about something I’ve experienced that holds value to me, I’ll remember that too is an exchange, and not every exchange is the right match.  (But when it is, it’s magic.)  :-)

If you’re in the Houston area, feel free to contact me.  I would be happy to do a short 15 minute workshop to set up a learning exchange environment in any adult classroom.